China's Savings Rate
Currently, the yearly GDP rate in China is increasing at around 10%. The ratio between domestic investment and GDP is quite high in comparison to other nations and it is increasing with the passage of time. This substantial extent of investment has become possible due to the truth that the ratio of national saving to GDP in China has reached really high degree both in terms of historical figures and international figures.
The elements functioning behind the increased rate of savings involve the following:
- More than expected development
- Relatively young population
- Restraints in consumption as a result of an underdeveloped financial infrastructure
- A defective social security arrangement
- A broadening income inequality
- Increased savings in the corporate sector enterprises receiving profits
Nevertheless, taking into account that these elements are anticipated to reverse in future, there is likelihood that savings rate of China may go down.
National savings is calculated as the aggregate of balance of current account and domestic or internal investment. In addition, if every variable quantity is divided by the Gross Domestic Product or GDP, the national saving rate of China can be estimated. The national saving rate of China has been increasing from about 35% at the time of the initial phases of open market reforms to 50.5% in the decade of 1980s. The majority of national savings is utilized for internal or domestic investments (in the year 2005, it was 43.4% of GDP). The amount that is excess comes out in the form of a current account surplus (in the year 2005, it was 7.1% of GDP). According to this trend, the increasing rate of saving is broadening the external disequilibrium of China.
The increased saving rate in China may be described with the help of the following:
- The permanent income hypothesis
- The life cycle hypothesis
- The income disparity hypothesis
- The underdeveloped or developing social security hypothesis
- The developing financial infrastructure hypothesis
- The increased corporate saving hypothesis
The increased savings rate in China has frequently been ascribed to a feeling of political and financial instability prevalent in the households in China. The high saving rate in Chinese enterprises is the result of high profitability in the private sector firms.